HOW TO POT AN ANTHURIUM PLANT CORRECTLY?

ඔබ මෙම ලිපිය සිංහල භාෂාවෙන් කියවීමට කැමතිනම්, කරුණාකර පහත දැක්වෙන යොමුව භාවිත කරන්න.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/12yzuoIyqM4Cp-VsDV2rbdE8Ii8lK3fMm/view?usp=sharing

Necessary Material

  • Dried Coconut husk cut into pieces of ¼”x¼” size
  • Course sand without mud and organic material (Sand remained on No 5 size mesh and parts larger than 1cm removed)
  • Manure – Osmocote (N and K types)
  • Pesticides (Captan 80)

Method of potting

  1. Mix Coconut husk pieces and Course sand with 1:1 proportion;
  2. Clean and open up the holes in the bottom of the selected pot to have proper draining
  3. Fill bottom of the pot with Course sand to a height of about ½ “;
  4. Fill about 1/3 of height of pot with previously mixed medium (Follow Note 3);
  5. Place the selected Anthurium plant on the filled medium so that the roots of the plant are evenly distributed within the pot and the roots are not damaged;
  6. Spread a small amount of medium over the roots to just cover them and; add Osmocote and evenly distribute. Also, make sure that they are not too close to the plant.  If Osmocote is too close to the plant, osmocote can damage the plant.;
  7. Now you may add more medium over the manure and fill the pot so that about 1” of the height of the pot from the seam remain (Note 3);
  8. Captan 80 mixture can be prepared by mixing 1 teaspoon of Captan 80 powder in 5 liter of water.  Stir properly so that the powder is dissolved completely. ;
  9. This white color mixture shall be poured with a suitable bucket over the whole plant and the medium so that both get wet well and the mixture shall flow under the pot. (Note 5); and
  10. After another 5days, the pesticides should be poured to wet the plant and the medium.  Here, it is sufficient to wet the top layers of the medium.

Note 1: Quantity of Osmocote to be used

  • For a small plant – One tea spoon of Osmocote N
  • Larger plant close to have flowers –  One tea spoon of Osmocote K
  • Larger plant close to have flowers or a plant with flowers; and when it is planted in a larger pot (About 12” diameter) as a mother plant –  Two tea spoon of Osmocote K
  • This amount of manure is sufficient for a period of 3 ½ to 4 months

Note 2: When lager pots are selected for smaller plants, growth rate could be reduced

Note 3: Always, top most area of the stem where new leaves starts should not be covered with the medium. The height of the fill under step No 4 can be adjusted accordingly

Note 4: When filling of medium is over, the surface shall not be pressed with hand or any other way, otherwise the root system could be damaged

Note 5: Before pouring the mixture, the pot with the plant shall be placed in a stable position.  Also, prior to preparing the mixture, you shall wear suitable gloves and take other protective measures as the pesticides are poisons.

Note 6: Rather than pouring the mixture with in a short time, it is suitable to have two or three small hole with the pouring bucket so that mixture is poured over a reasonable period in order to wet the plant and the medium thoroughly.

Note 7: After completion of potting the plant, the pot with the plant should be kept in a shady and secured place for a period of not less than two weeks so that the plant is not moved or shake.  If not, new roots do not start.

HOW TO IDENTIFY A VARIETY OF ANTHURIUM?

ඔබ මෙම ලිපිය සිංහල භාෂාවෙන් කියවීමට කැමතිනම් පහත දැක්වෙන යොමුව භාවිතයෙන් ලිපිය බාගත හැක.
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1f_QEYycecaHQAqgOebroHr0xw5ba5ilX/view?usp=sharing

In order to identify a variety of Anthurium, it is necessary to understand the various parts of an Anthurium flower and a plant.  Following figure gives the details of different parts of an Anthurium plant.


Parts of an Anthurium Plant and a Flower

When you closely observe the Anthurium plants of different varieties; you, your self, can understand how their various qualities vary from variety to variety.  Also, with the same variety, still you will find variation of qualities with the age of the flower and the leaves.  Mainly you can give your attention to following qualities;

Color of the Leaves

Although the color of the Anthurium leaves are normally green, it varies with the variety. Most common colors are greenish and reddish colors.  Also, the young leaves are having light colors and with the age, the color of leaves get darker.  When young leaves are red color, with the age, the reddish color turns to green or reddish green.  New leaves are shiny and with the time, the shine of the leaves get reduced.

Shape of the Leaves

Different Anthurium varieties are having different shapes for their leaves.  The most common shape is heart shape.  Sometimes, the leave is cup shaped rather than flat.  Certain varieties have longer leaves.  In addition, the form of the veins and the mid rib varies with the variety.

In the case of a small plant, there are no flowers and therefore, the qualities of the leaves mainly help to identify a plant.   

Color of Spathe

Color of spathe varies from variety to variety.  You would observe, mainly, there are number of common colors such as white, red, pink, yellow, black, green, and so on.  When you take one of the color, still you will find a large number of varieties with same color, but with slight variations.   At the same time, one can observe some varieties with a mix of two or more colors.  Most of the time, they have two colors and they are named as by-color varieties.

Although, one identifies a variety with the color of its spathe, this color of the Spathe also changes with the age of the flower.  One good example is shown with the photograph given below.  Flower 1 is a young flower and its spathe has a bright, uniform and clear color.  When it is getting old (Flower 2), the brightness has reduced and the color is being faded away.  Also some different colors are adding to the spathe.  When the flower is getting older (Flower 3) the most of its original color and brightness has gone and it is now with a different color.  More than that, softness of the spathe has reduced and the spathe is getting hard with the age.

Shape of Spathe

Not only the color, but also the shape of spathe varies from variety to variety.  There are several common shapes such as Ribbon Shape, heart shape, Cup shape, Tulip Shape etc.  Also, there are certain varieties with little different to these shapes.

Color and texture of the Spadix

The spadix of the Anthurium is an interesting thing.  Although we say an Anthurium Flower, what we see as a whole is not really the flower.  The real flowers are on the surface of the Spadix, a bunch of flowers.  There are a larger number of flowers.  Once the spathe opens up, flowers like some small granular parts are forming on the Spadix and flowers on the spadix start blooming from bottom of the spadix. With time, blooming spreads towards the top of the spadix.  Therefore, just after opening the spathe, the spadix has a very tender and uniform color and it is very soft.  After some time, part of the spadix has bloomed and balance part is yet to be bloomed.  This can be felt when one touches or watches the spadix.  Then, the Spadix is in two color and there are two textures on the Spadix.  This change is used to decide the correct time of cutting an Anthurium flower so that the Anthurium cut flower can be kept for a maximum period without changing its quality.  The change of Spadix with the time can be easily understand with the following photographs.  After pollination of flowers, seeds are formed on the Spadix.

Further, it has been observed that the tip of the spadix changes and sometimes it is flat and sometimes pointed shape

Color of the stalk

Stalk of the Anthurium flower and leaves take different colors in different varieties.  Like the other parts of the plant, the stalk also is having a tender color when the flower or the leave is young and it gets darker or color change when it is older.

It has been found that Anthurium varieties with reddish or blackish Spathe, their stalk and younger roots also show similar colors. 

Now the important thing is that you need to understand and get the experience of these variations of different varieties in order to identify a certain variety of Anthurium.  Because of these variations, there are thousands of varieties of Anthurium found in the world and therefore, Anthurium is so colorful and beautiful. Due to the change of colors of the flower, leaves and the stalk with the age, you will find a number of different colors in the same plant which gives a Georges look. So, it is well suited for any residential decorations, using cut flowers or as an indoor plant, and for any ceremonial occasion.  Due to this reason, Anthurium flowers and plants are having a great demand in the international market.

8 FACTORS AFFECTING THE GROWTH OF ANTHURIUM

when we try to understand the factors affecting the growth of Anthurium, it is very important to understand where Anthurium originated and environmental conditions of that area. Anthurium originated in the tropical rainforest of  South America where there is high humidity and temperature due to the existence of this forest area close to the equator and in a high rainfall zone. At the same time, Anthurium species is an herbaceous epiphytes which means, originally, the plant grows on trees and absorbed required nutrient from air, water and the decayed material deposited around the plant. So that, it is possible to list out following essential factors which require for a proper growth of Anthurium plants:

1. Humidity

Humidity is the most important factor for Anthurium and it prefers to have a humidity around 80% for a proper growth. During the night, it can even go up to 90%. Having a value of less than 65% for a long periods could damage the plant. The high humidity helps Anthurium plant to absorb required nutrients and transform them into living tissues by the process of anabolism; metabolize constructively. When the plant grows under the proper humidity, leaves and the flowers of the plant give a shiny and healthy look. When the humidity is lower, roots get weaker and plants become dry.

2. Temperature

Temperature of the surrounding area should not be more than 35°C for a proper growth and between 24 – 28°C is most suitable. during the night, temperature should not fall below 15°C. Areas where day time temperature is less than 15°C, are not suitable for a commercial cultivation of Anthurium. When the temperature is high, leaves and flowers get burned.

3. Light

Anthurium is naturally fond of shading. we have to imagine how Anthurium lived in South American rain forests. For a commercial cultivation of Anthurium, it is appropriate to have 20% to 30% of full sun light. This means, it needs 70% to 80% shading. When Anthurium receives less light, brightness or color of flowers get reduced and there could be damages to the leaves and flowers. However, the degree of shading required varies with the cultivar, the age of the plant, and the climate under which it is grown.

4. Growing media

The growing media to be selected should have certain properties so that it should be well aerated, good in water retention and good in drainage. This media should provide sufficient nutrient and it should help the plant to be in position. Organic material with sufficient drainage is suitable. A mixture of coconut husk (cut in to small pieces) and coarse sand is appropriate for a commercial cultivation.

5. Water

Anthuriums need sufficiently moisture throughout the day and well drained so that there is no water collected around the roots. Insufficient water will give stress to the plant and can burned tips of leaves and damage roots. Too much water also can damage roots by rotting and will make leaves yellow color.

6. Fertilizers

Most of the time, the media used for planting the Anthurium provide required nutrient for a certain period and slow releasing fertilizer like Osmocote is appropriate as it provide necessary nutrients including micro-nutrients in a continuous manner for long period. It is sufficient to repeat manuring after 3 or 4 months. Some times, liquid fertilizers are used on leaves when the plants are very small and they do not have sufficient root system to absorb nutrient.

7. Pest Management

For a commercial cultivation, it is necessary to have a proper pest management program. A controlled environment such as a net house it self gives a certain protection from insects and worms etc. But, still the plants can be damaged by very small insects and fungus which can pass through the plastic nets. Suitable pesticides should be adopted to control both insects and fungus.

8. Affection

Anthurium or any other plant means a living thing. Living things cannot survive along. Interaction with other groups is necessary. When the plant was in the reinforest, it should have an interaction with other plants, specially because, Anthurium is an herbaceous epiphytes. So they always get necessary affection from other plants or trees in the surrounding . When the plant is in your custody, the plant need your affection. It is a living thing. when you live with it for a certain period, it can identify your smell or your voice. Everyday, you visit your plants, you water them, supply necessary nutrients, touch them or look for any troubles such as insects or fungus and take immediate action to remove unnecessary things. You do not like some bad thing happening to your plants like to your children. When you give your affection to them, you also get the response or feedback. It is emotional. They love you. So, plants grow in a healthy way. Then, they are more beautiful and gorgeous.

For more information

Types of Anthurium

The categorization of Anthurium has been done in different manner i.e.: based of the origin, usage and physical appearance of the flower and the foliage.

The Anthurium specie is an herbaceous epiphytes which means, originally, the plant grows on trees. They absorb necessary nutrients from air, water and decayed material accumulated around the plant. Anthurium belongs to the Arum family (Araceae). Mainly there are two Anthurium species, namely the Anthurium Scherzerianum and the Anthurium Andreanum.

Anthurium Scherzerianum

This type of Anthurium has round or oval shape (Egg shape) spathe and a thin flower spike. Some times, this type is also known as Flamingo flower due to its pink color, but it is also found in other colors like bright orange and purple.

Anthurium Andreanum

This type is also having a similar look, but its spathe has a plastic and lacquer-like shine. Anthurium Andreanum is different from Anthurium Scherzerianum with its way of flowering and blossoming, and the arrangement of the flowers on the stalks. The spathe is having a heart shape and its flowering spike is thick and straight.

Also the Anthurium is categorize based on the shape of its spathe. Following are some of such common types.

Tulip shaped

This type has been given its name due to its tulip shaped flower.

Ribbon Shaped

Flowers of these Anthurium types have a narrow ribbon shape.

Heart Shaped

When people talk about Anthurium, naturally they feel it is heart shaped. It is the traditional shape.

Cup Shaped

This type also gives its name totally due to its shape of the spathe. it is round and there is a depth rather than a flat spathe.

Other types of categorization of Anthurium

Categorization of Anthurium has been done due to various reasons. Anthurium is an item that spreads very rapidly all over the world. Although one plant is given a specific name due to scientific reasons or based on the locality of the origin or as a hybrid variety, the same name is very differently used in other part of the world that they made them their own because people love Anthurium so much. Because of that, one variety of plant can be categorized under more than one group. Following are some of the several such types;

Lady Jane Anthurium

This is a type of Anthurium developed in Hawaii in the early stages of producing hybrid varieties and their flowers are smaller and more narrow than other types. The color of the spathe is light red and spadix, white or pink. The stem is long and narrow. But now a days, the name Lady Jane is commonly used for a series of Anthurium varieties with similar shape and size. This type can be easily cultivated in tropical countries. Propagation of Lady Jane plants are successful by dividing rhizomes, tubers, corms or bulbs. Plant does not set seed, flowers are sterile, or plants will not come true from seeds.

Cut Flower Anthurium and Potted Anthurium

Cut flower is a flower or a bud which is separated from the mother plant. This name is not specific to Anthurium and it is relevant for many other flowers. Cut flower is required when it is necessary to use the flower in place other than in the mother plant it self, specially for decorative purposes. Normally cut flowers are used in vases or used to decorate various locations like offices, wedding halls, auditoriums etc. and some times used to offer as gifts.

After separated from the mother plant, most of the flowers cannot maintain their quality for more than a few days. But, specialty of Anthurium is that the cut flowers can be kept for more than three weeks without changing its original quality when the flower is plucked at the right time. So they can be easily transported to distance places and even overseas without damaging the flower. Also there are many treatments that can be adopted to increase the life time of the cut flower. Therefore, there is a big demand for Anthurium cut flower in the international market.

There are many types of Anthurium cultivated for cut flowers and normally the size of the plant and the flower are comparatively larger. So it is difficult to cultivate them in pots. Also, there are certain varieties which relatively small its plant and the flower, and hence they can be cultivated in pots and known as potted Anthurium. The potted Anthuriums are frequently used for decorating and indoor landscaping as they are attractive and looks beautiful as the whole plant. They have an unprecedented flowering span, and remarkably easy to care for.

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ORIGIN OF ANTHURIUM

The Anthurium, its genus name, comes from two Greek words ‘Oura’ and ‘Anthos’ which means “tail flower”. This name is quite appropriate for this plant due the shape of its flower which consists of a spathe and a spadix.  The family name that the Anthurium plant belongs to is  Arum (Araceae).  The Anthurium plant is often growing as an Epiphyte on other plants.  The moisture and nutrient required for the growth of the plant are absorbed from the air, rain, water (in marine environments) or from debris accumulating around it.

Red Fungi in Tusmanian Rainforest.  Thanks to Kacharava – https://images.app.goo.gl/wPepYKbHyvRzK4WD6 

The Anthurium plant has originated in the tropical rainforest of  South America, specially in the area between southwestern Colombia and northwestern Ecuador.  These plants have been there untouched for several hundreds of years and there had been no any interest on this plant by native people.  It could be due to that those plants had no such beautiful look what we are looking for today with different varieties of Anthurium.  A businessman called Samuel Samon brought Anthurim first time to Hawaii and introduced to the people.  In the latter part of 1930’s, people learned to propagate Anthurium through seeds and this made a vast change of producing different varieties of this plant with different shapes and colors through selective breeding.

In 1940s in Hawaii, this Anthurium became an economically valuable plant and popular among tourists.  Thereafter, with the invention of the Airplane, Anthurium plantation become an international business.

Scientific name of this beautiful flower is Anthurium andraeanum.  people of the world named this flower with different names such as  Flamingo Flower, Laceleaf, Tailflower, Flamingo Lily, Painter’s Palette etc.

References:

Continue reading ORIGIN OF ANTHURIUM

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